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List of Celebrity Branded Fragrances

List of Celebrity Branded Fragrances


List of Celebrity Brand Fragrances: Actresses

The most successful fragrances branded by a celebrity are those of Elizabeth Taylor as she collaborated with Elizabeth Arden.  The duo released 12 of the most successful celebrity fragrances between 1988 and 2010, and some of these fragrances include Passion, White Diamonds, Black Pearls, Gardenia, and Violet Eyes. 


Jennifer Lopez has released over 15 fragrances and some of the most successful include Glow, Still, Deseo, and Love and Glamour. 


Sarah Jessica Parker released 8 fragrances between 2005 and 2009 that included Lovely, Covet, SJP NYC, Endless, and Twilight.


Halle Berry released three popular fragrances including Halle, Halle Pure Orchid, and Reveal.  The branded fragrances have been released by Jennifer Aniston, Kate Walsh, Eva Longoria, Reese Witherspoon, Mary-Kate Olsen, Ashley Olsen, and Isabella Rossellini. 


List of Celebrity Brand Fragrances: Male Actors, Models, and Athletes

Male musicians with the most successful branded fragrances include Diddy, Usher, Akon, and Nelly. 


Diddy’s successful fragrances include Sean John I Am King, Sean John Unforgivable, and Sean John Unforgiveable for Women.  Usher’s successful fragrances include UR for Men, UR for Women, and Usher VIP.  Popular fragrances by Akon include Konvict Homme and Konvict Femme.  The most popular fragrance by Nelly is Apple Bottoms, and other musicians like 50 Cent and Tim McGraw have popular fragrances as well. 


Antonio Banderas has released 15 branded fragrances, and some of the more popular fragrances include Seduction in Black, Spirit VIP for Men, Spirit VIP for Women, and The Secret.  Male celebrities like David Beckham and Patrick Dempsey have released branded fragrances as well. 


List of Celebrity Brand Fragrances: Female Musicians

Celine Dion has released 14 fragrances, and some of the popular fragrances include Celine Dion, Belong, Enchanting, Sensational Moments, and Simply Chic. 


Britney Spears has released 9 different fragrances, and she has collaborated with Elizabeth Arden for most the fragrances.  Her popular fragrances include Curious by Britney Spears, Fantasy, Midnight Fantasy, Circus Fantasy, and Radiance. 


Mariah Carey has also released 9 fragrances, and she has also collaborated with Elizabeth Arden.  Some of her popular fragrances are M, Luscious Pink, Forever, and Lollipop Bling Honey. 


The following female musicians have also released popular fragrances: Avril Lavigne, Beyonce, Christina Aguilera, Rihanna, Katy Perry, Shakira, Fergie, Gwen Stefani, Jordin Sparks, Faith Hill, Shania Twain, Jessica Simpson, Mary J. Blige, Hilary Duff, and Queen Latifah. 


List of Celebrity Brand Fragrances: Other Popular Celebrities

The following celebrities are known for popular branded fragrances as well:


Andy Warhol: Andy Warhol and Marilyn Rose

Kat Von D: Saint, Sinner, and Adora

Cindy Crawford: Cindy Crawford, Summer Day, and Joyful

Maria Sharapova: Maria Sharapova

Heidi Klum: Shine

Kim Kardashian: Kim Kardashian and Gold

Kate Moss: Kate, Vintage, and Wild Meadow

Paris Hilton: Heiress, Siren, and Tease

Daisy Fuentes: So Luxurious, Dianoche Love, and Mysterio

Naomi Campbell: Eternal Beauty, Cat Deluxe, and Naomi

Michael Jordan: Michael Jordon, 23, and Legend

Trade Secret

Trade Secret


A trade secret is primarily defined by the Uniform Trade Secrets Act (UTSA).  Essentially, the trade secret is information such as a formula, pattern, program, method, process, technique, or similar piece of information that produces economic value.   However, the information only produces actual or potential economic value because it is not accessible by other parties who could also generate economic value with its use. 


Before the UTSA was passed, the use of a secret in trade was an offense under a common law tort known as the Restatement of Torts.  Section 757 and 758 of this tort laid out general policies, and the majority of U.S. Courts adopted the trade secret tort.  Comment (b) of §757 is still accessed regularly and determines what qualifies as a secret in trade.  A secret in trade is recognized depending on the following:


·         the amount of information about the secret known outside of the business

·         the amount of information known by employees for the business

·         the measures taken by the business to protect the information from exposure

·         the value of the secret to the business compared to competitors

·         the difficulty involved in acquiring the information and duplicating the information


In order to submit a trade secret claim, the information needs to qualify for protection in the first place.  Secondly, the party holding the secret needs to prove that they took reasonable steps to keep in the information private.  Thirdly, the party holding the secret must prove that the secret was not unlawfully obtained from another party. 


There are two cases when a secret in trade is unlawfully obtained.  The information was unlawfully obtained through improper means or there is a breach of confidence.  For example, if an employee accessed information and sold the information to another company, the second company committed breach of confidence. 


It is not illegal to obtain a trade secret if the information is discovered independently, reverse engineering leads to the discovery, or the company holding the secret failed to take proper steps in protecting the secret. 


A trade secret does not last for a specific number of years like a patent.  The secret in trade continues indefinitely until disclosure of the secret is reached lawfully.  An inventor has the choice to choose between a patent and a protection of the secret, but the information cannot by dually protected at the same time. 


Obtaining a secret in trade does not always exist as a crime only under tort law.  It qualifies as a federal crime in some cases.  The crimes becomes a federal crime when it violates the Economic Espionage Act of 1996. 


A recent trade secret violation occurred when Kolon Industries stole information about the manufacturing process used by DuPont for Kevlar para-aramind fiber.  Kolon is headquartered in South Korea and makes a bullet-proof product called Hercron.  Kolon wanted to improve its products, so they targeted former employees that formerly worked for DuPont to receive information on the secrets.


They soon received information about the secret manufacturing process used by DuPont and replicated the process in three years. 

Hungry Jack’s

Hungry Jack's


Hungry Jack's

Hungry Jack's is an Australian fast food franchise that was originally under the control of the American fast food franchise Burger King. From 1995 to 2001, the two companies were involved in a prolonged legal dispute that was ultimately decided in favor Hungry Jack's.


Hungry Jack's began business in 1971 as the exclusive franchise of Burger King in Australia. In 1991, the contract between the two businesses was renewed. The contract included a "termination clause" stating that Hungry Jack's was responsible for opening four new franchise locations a year. However, the contract contradicted itself with another clause which stated that as long as Hungry Jack's opened at least two new locations in a year, another year's worth of a "grace period" would be granted.


In 1995, Burger King decided it wanted to take over directly from Hungry Jack's. Though the terms of the contract stated that every franchise location opened had to be approved by Burger King, the company refused to approve the opening of any new locations, making it impossible for Hungry Jack's to live up to the terms of the contract. At this time, Burger King also made use of a Hungry Jack's employee who provided them with information about the company's activities.


In 1996, Burger King claimed that Hungry Jack's had violated the terms of its contract and began directly opening its own franchise locations. In 2001, Hungry Jack's filed suit against Burger King, claiming that they had violated the terms of the contract. The case was heard in the New South Wales Court of Appeal and resolved on June 21, 2001. In its decision, the court considered the termination clause's terms and its contradictions with other parts of the contract. The court ruled that the contract allowed Burger King to arbitrarily impeded and hinder Hungry Jack's, making it impossible for them to honor the contract.


In reviewing the contract, the court considered the question of "good faith." Because the contract in question was not a standard commercial agreement for which precedent concerning good faith had not yet been established, the court had to rule on whether there was an implicit, justifiable reason to assume such a basis for business. Taking into account Burger King's attempts to prevent Hungry Jack's from opening more locations and use of internal information provided by its informant, the court ruled that Burger King's actions were taken with the direct intent of harming Hungry Jack's to allow Burger King to open its own locations.


As a result, the court ruled in favor of Hungry Jack's and ordered that Burger King pay roughly 71 million in Australian dollars. Burger King appealed the decision but was not successful in this attempt. The case is considered in the Australian legal system for introducing "good faith" as a measure of determining the merits of two parties' actions when involved in a contractual dispute. The case is often cited as a precedent in such cases.



How the Law Handles Competition between Businesses
In business, competition between sellers within an open marketplace is beneficial for both businesses and consumers. Competition not only keeps prices lower and raises quality, but it also provides more choices and more reason to be innovative. In order to maintain this sense of competition between sellers, the Federal Trade Commission enforces the antitrust laws.
These laws were first created in response to many companies who concealed their business practices using trusts in the late 19th century, which threatened the free market.
·         The Sherman Act (1890)
o   Created to prevent potential cartels or monopolies that could be detrimental to having competition in a free market
o   The act does not allow companies to artificially raise the price
·         The Federal Trade Commission Act (1914)
o   Created the Federal Trade Commission which now regulates large corporations and stops them from having unfair trading practices
·         The Clayton Act (1914)
o   Prevents certain practices that could harm competition in free market, such as price discrimination or having an individual being a director on two companies in competition with each other.
While the anti-trust laws are applicable to most organizations, there are certain types that are exempt from the anti-trust laws, such as labor unions banks, and agricultural cooperatives.
The Federal Trade Commission still continues to monitor large corporations to ensure that no business practices occur that may harm the free market and healthy competition. The Federal trade Commission Monitors the following activities:
·         Mergers
o   While mergers can allow firms to operate more smoothly, mergers result in fewer options and possibly higher consumers.
·         Agreements Among Competitors
o   Businesses cannot conspire to raise prices, hinder other businesses from operating, or raising prices
o   The Federal Trade Commission pays close attention to potential artificial price fixing
·         Manufacturers and Product Dealers
o   There are some agreements, for example a car with a brand of tires that are acceptable, but others can be illegal if they restrict competition without providing customer benefits.
·         Monopolies
o   By excluding other companies or impairing their ability to compete, it can hurt the consumer by allowing them to control prices.
·         Other Anticompetitive Actions
By regulating major corporations, a free market can exist and competition is possible between sellers. However, there can be downsides to competition in the free market. It can potentially lead to increased costs and if waste if companies repeat ideas without innovation. In certain circumstances, competition is inefficient and a natural monopoly flourishes.



Charities and the Law

A charity is a non-profit organization that works to benefit the public or accomplish some form of philanthropy. 
Charities can be either public or private foundations. When a charity (even if foreign) qualifies under the Internal Revenue code Section 501(c)(3), which makes them exempt from taxes, they are considered to be a private foundation. A private charity receives the majority of its funds from one source, such as a family, individual or a corporation.
If the charity does not qualify to be a private foundation, it is considered to be a public foundation, and also classifies under Section 508(b) or 509(a). In a public charity, the majority of funding comes from the government, private foundations, or individuals.
For a charity to have 501(c)(3) status, it must be organized and run exclusively for the reasons described in the code, in this case purely for charity. The organization cannot benefit any private interests and none of the earnings should benefit any one private individual shareholder. Because of this status, a charity can get tax-deductible contributions.
A charity is limited in its ability to conduct legislative and political activities, such as lobbying. Under 501(c)(3) code, a charity must do the following:
Restrict lobbying to a very small part of the charity’s activities
Refrain from taking part in any candidates during political campaigns on any level of government
Not let any earnings benefit one individual or private shareholder
Refrain from operating for the benefit of one private interest or for the purpose of any trade or business that is not related to the exempt purpose
Refrain from illegal activities
The most common 501(c)(3) charities promote:
Fighting community deterioration
Preventing juvenile delinquency
Eliminating discrimination and prejudice
Constructing or maintaining public monuments, buildings, or works
Advancing science or education
Advancing religion
Securing civil and human rights through the law
Helping the underprivileged, the distressed, or the poor
A charity that is under 501©(3) must follow two disclosure rules placed by the federal tax law. A donor must receive from the charity a written acknowledgement for any individual contribution that is at least $250 in order for the donor to claim a federal contribution on a federal income tax return. Second, a charity must give a written disclosure to a donor who pays $75 or more as a combination of contribution and payment for a service or good.

Business Letter

Business Letter

Writing a Proper Business Letter

A business letter is written differently from most letters due to its use of formal language. Instead of showing creativity using evocative language, a business letter uses more succinct language, while stressing accuracy and specificity. 
The write an effective business letter, it is important to assume that the receiver of the letter will not have much time and will want to quickly understand the point of the message. Depending on the context, the writing style can be more casual, such as what would be found in an email correspondence or more formal, such as what would be found in a contract. The writing style of a business letter relies on the circumstances and it is important to use the correct amount of formality.

Parts of a Business Letter
Most business letters can be broken down to the following sections:
Sender’s address
o If the address is not already in the leader head, include one line above the date at the top of the letter.
o Only write the street, city, and zip code.
o The date is the date that the letter was written or completed.
o Write the month, day, and year 2” from the top of the page either in the center or left justified.
o It should be written in American date format if addressed to an American company.
Inside address
o This is to a specific individual and his or her business address. 
o The address is left justified and one line underneath the sender’s address or the left.
o This is the name within the inside address with the personal title.
o Use a personal title, full name, colon and a blank line after the salutation.
o The personal title can be omitted if gender is unknown.
o The body should be in paragraph format that are left justified and single spaced.
o There should be a blank line between paragraphs.
o The closing is at one line after the final body paragraph and has the same horizontal point as the date. The first word should be capitalized and four spaces should be left between the closing and the sender’s name.
o Enclosures should be indicated by typing “enclosure” a line after the closing.
o Documents can be listed optionally, particularly if there are multiple documents.
Typist initials
o The typist of the document usually initials the document, but if it was written by the sender, initials are omitted.
Other tips for writing a good business letter
It is acceptable to use first person pronouns, but make sure to use “we” when representing the company.
Avoid using a passive voice in order to maintain clarity in the business letter.
Be concise but still consider the tone of the letter in order to avoid being blunt.

B2B Marketing Defined

B2B Marketing Defined

B2B marketing refers to the marketing that occurs between two businesses that utilize each others products or services.  B2B is short for “business to business”.  B2B marketing is important for those companies, as they need to sustain supply chains or sustain business clients in order to be an active part of commerce.  B2B marketing applies to businesses in several different ways, ranging from the simple (having a good brand name, distinctive logo, and a website) to the very complex (appearing in trade magazines, e-mailing newsletters, and direct mail). 

How to use B2B Marketing for your business

1. Identify how B2B Marketing can help your business
B2B marketing is for those businesses that are in a supply chain and need to maintain their contacts, either from the supplying or purchasing end.  Identify whether your business has the type of relationships with other businesses that must be maintained for the benefit of your company.  Local, regional, and nationwide businesses can benefit from B2B marketing, but it needs to be adapted to your market.  Retail, distributors, and manufacturers are types of businesses in the supply chain that strive when using B2B marketing.  

2. Determine how to budget for B2B Marketing
B2B marketing poses a unique budgeting problem for businesses, as many companies seek increased revenue rather than nurturing relationships with other businesses.  B2B marketing also does not use traditional methods of marketing, as you are not trying to raise brand awareness, but rather increase the strength of an already existing connection.  Some B2B marketing ideas include have luncheons with other business professionals, providing informational sessions and talks that both benefit your businesses while raising awareness of your products and services, or just keeping in contact with decision makers at the other company.  

3. Establish your B2B marketing plan
Once you have determined that your company has the relationships that can benefit from B2B marketing, you must create a plan that will meet your goals.  Brainstorming to come up with unique ideas is one method in which you and your employees can use to work into your plan. B2B marketing must use non-traditional advertising or marketing ideas in order to keep brand awareness and likability for each business.  B2B marketing will require that the leaders of your business actively work and speak with those in charge of the other companies.  Group outings, co-sponsored events, and the exchange of information can be both enjoyable and serve to market your company to other businesses.  

4. Putting your B2B marketing ideas into effect
After coming up with the ideas and planning your B2B marketing strategy, you must put them into place.  Ensure that you follow through with your B2B marketing, in order to show the other businesses that you are capable of providing the services and products they need or that you can provide.  It will also be helpful to receive feedback about your B2B marketing strategies and continue using what works while phasing out any marketing that does not seem as helpful. 

Laws and legal issues for B2B Marketing
B2B marketing can sometimes create legal and regulatory problems for the businesses involved.  You must ensure that you are compliant with all laws, especially if your business works directly with government agencies, bidding processes, and government officials.  This is due to the fact that much of B2B marketing can involve direct solicitation, providing gifts or items to other entities, and other activities that may be violate business regulations. Contact a legal professional for help if you believe your business may need to abide by such regulation before beginning your B2B marketing plan.  

Loan Amortization Schedule

Loan Amortization Schedule

A loan amortization schedule is a useful tool to determine the amount left on a loan and the interest that will be paid.  Through the use of a loan amortization schedule tool, one will be able to determine the date of repayment, monthly principal and interest owed and the sum of all payments that will be made to the lender.  Although it is not particularly difficult for an individual to generate a loan amortization schedule, tools exist to guide borrowers through the steps of making a loan amortization schedule to help determine their future finances.

What is the definition of amortization?
The term amortization refers to the amount of the monthly payment made on a loan that decreases the principal owed.  You use a loan amortization schedule to determine how much the portion of the monthly payment that is not allocated to pay interest will decrease the principal amount owned.

How do I calculate a loan amortization schedule?
First, gather the following information (sample numbers included)
Loan Amount = $50,000
Loan term = 10 years
Interest rate = 12%
Amortization rates = monthly
Loan amortization can be calculated manually sometimes, but generally speaking, it is a better idea to use software or resources that are programmed to give accurate results on loan amortization schedules.  
Using an online loan amortization calculator, we find that the initial payment made is $717.35.  $500 is paid in interest, with the remainder paid toward reducing the principal.  Looking at the loan amortization schedule, we see that assuming the repayment began in January 2012, by Jan 2015, $406.37 is being paid in interest and $310.98 is paid toward the principal.  Only about $10,000 of the principal will be repaid that that point.  Toward the end of the loan amortization schedule, which ends on December of 2021, we see that more of the principal is repaid with each payment, while the share of the payment that is used to cover interest, declines, coinciding with the slowly reducing principal amount.

What are the issues with a loan amortization schedule?
A loan amortization schedule assumes that payments will remain exactly the same throughout the repayment of the loan.  Especially in arrangements with adjustable interest rates or lacking “balloon payments,” monthly payments can vary.  The lack of balloon payments allowed for more of the principal to be repaid early, thus reducing the interest that will be owed.  Use a loan amortization schedule as a benchmark to estimate how much a loan will cost and only use it as a guide if the loan is fixed and you know that you will not able to repay it early.  Payments may vary slightly due to rounding on the part of the lender although these discrepancies are usually adjusted at the end of the year.
As with all blended payment arrangements, interest will dominate the repayment at first and principal repayment will overtake interest repayment a bit of time after repayment has begun.  A loan amortization schedule can help you visualize when that will occur, which can be valuable information.

Loan Amortization Calculation

Loan Amortization Calculation

In regards to economics, amortization refers to the distribution of a single lump-sum cash flow into many smaller installments, as determined through an amortization table or schedule. 
Amortization is a loan with a unique repayment structure. Unlike other models, each repayment in an amortization consists of satisfying both the principal balance and the interest attached to the loan. 
Amortization is used in loan repayments, most commonly in mortgage loans or sinking funds. The payments are divided into equal amounts for the duration of the maturity schedule. Because of this uniformity, the amortization is regarded as the simplest repayment model. 
Payment towards the amortization is mostly applied to the interest of the loan at the beginning of the amortization schedule, while an increased percentage of payment is used to satisfy the principal at the end of the amortization loan.
In an accounting sense, loan amortization refers to expensing the cost of acquisition from the residual value of intangible assets such as patents, trademarks, copyrights or other forms of intellectual property.
In a more common sense, amortization refers to the tangible process of paying off a debt, such as a loan or a mortgage. The process in a loan amortization is satisfied through the delivery of regular payments made at uniform times. A portion of each payment is used to satisfy the interest while the remaining payment amount is applied towards the principal balance. The percentage that goes into satisfying both the interest and the principal balance is determined through the amortization schedule. 
Loan amortization is deciphered by the macro-economic conditions of the market (primarily the interest rates) the credit score of the borrower and the intricacies that revolve around the specific loan. 

How Do I Amortize a Loan?
A lender will amortize a loan to pay-off the outstanding balance of a loan through the delivery of equal payments on a regular schedule. These payments are structured so that the borrower satisfies both the principal and interest with the delivery of each equal payment. 
Payments and amortization calculators are available on a number of lending websites; these tools facilitate the construction of an amortization schedule. If the lender wishes to understand the variable and inner-workings of the amortization calculation, please observe the below figures and steps:
P= Principal amount (the initial amount of the loan)
I= The annual interest rate (a figure from 1 to 100 percent)
L= The length in years of the loan or the loan over which the loan is amortized
J= The monthly interest 
N= The number of months over which a loan is amortized
To calculate the amortization, first take 1+J then take that figure to the minus N power. Take this number; subtract that figure from the number 1. Next, take the inverse of that and multiply the result by J then P. This figure represents the monthly payment (M). To calculate the amortization table you will need to do the following:
Step 1: Calculate H (P X J) to observe the current monthly interest rate. 
Step 2: Calculate C= M-H to observe the monthly payment minus the monthly interest rates—this figure is the principal amount for that particular month.
Step 3: Calculate Q=P-C to observe the new principal balance for the loan
Step 4: Set P equal to Q and observe Step 1 until the value of Q goes to zero. 

A Full Guide to Investments

A Full Guide to Investments

What are Investments?
An investment is the commitment of an asset–such as cash or capital–to purchase a financial instrument with the goal of earning a profit. Investments typically yield a return in the form of interest, appreciation, or another source of income such as a dividend.
Investments are related to savings or deferred compensation. An individual will invest to put their wealth in a long-term instrument that will secure a set interest rate or dividend where the money will hopefully grow at a rate faster than inflation.
Investments are responses to savings accounts, where interest or substantial profits will not be earned. As inflation is inevitable, the resting money loses value over time. An investment offsets inflation through the guarantee of a fixed interest rate (CDs or long-term bonds), profits (stocks), or interest. 
Investments are involved in a number of areas of the global economy. An investment can be the commitment of capital to an asset or financial instrument that is intended to appreciate in value. An individual can purchase a stock, bond, piece of property, derivatives, foreign currency, Treasury bill from the government, and other forms of debt with the intent to earn a profit on the instrument in the future.
Whatever the investment type, the commitment involves the choice by an individual or organization after thorough research of the investment’s yield and the characteristics associated with the investment. Although investments are solid vehicles to realize profits, they demonstrate a substantial risk in the loss of the principal sum.

Types of Investments:

Bonds: These types of investments are grouped under fixed-income securities. A bond is a form of debt investment; when you purchase a bond, you lend money to a government entity or company. In return, they provide interest payments eventually pay-back the full amount you originally lent. Bonds are a popular investment strategy because they are relatively safe. If you buy bonds from a stable company or government body, your investment is risk-free. The safety of a bond, however, comes at a cost. The mitigated risk is matched with little return on investment; the higher the credit rating of the issuing agency the lower the return on investment. 
Stocks: When you purchase a stock you become a part owner of the attached company. Ownership allows you to vote at shareholders’ meetings and allows you to receive a portion of the profits that the company makes—these profits are referred to as dividends. Because your return on investment is proportional to the underlying company’s business, the potential for increased profits (when compared to fixed-income securities) is realized in stock investments. That being said, the exposure to risk is also realized; stocks are far more volatile than bonds or other investment strategies. 
Mutual Funds: Mutual funds are a collection of stocks and bonds. When you purchase a mutual fund, you pool your money with a number of investors—this enables you to pay a professional manager to select securities for you. Mutual funds are packaged with specific strategies in mind; their distinct focus can be on a number of investment options, including: small stocks, large stocks, bonds from corporations, bonds from governments, stocks in specific industries or stocks in specific countries. 
Alternative Investments: The two basic investment strategies are equities and debts (stocks and bonds). While a number of investments fall into these two categories, there are a number of alternative investment strategies that represent complicated types of securities. When you start a business you should avoid dabbling in this market. See below to read about why you should avoid investing in options, forward contracts and other alternative investment strategies. 

How to Invest if You are a Small Business Owner:
Allocate Your Assets Properly: Numerous studies conclude that the most important factor in small business investing is asset allocation—your investment portfolio should include a prudent mix of stocks, bonds and cash. Over the long run, stocks will earn roughly 10 percent a year—enough to double your money every seven years. Stocks, however, (as evidenced recently) are too risky for funds that you will need in the next 5 to 10 years. The bulk of your money, therefore, should go into bonds, which are less volatile, but also less profitable—average returns for bonds are roughly 5 percent a year. Cash (savings accounts and money market accounts) are extremely safe but generally will yield nothing once inflation is realized. 
A common rule regarding how to invest, says a small business owner should keep enough cash for roughly 8 to 12 months of expenses. Of the remaining holdings in the portfolio, the percentage of your bonds should equal your age (i.e. if you are 50 years old, 50% of your portfolio should be comprised of bonds). The rest of your money should be invested in stocks. 

Utilize E.T.F.’s and Funds: 
The most efficient way to diversify your portfolio is to invest in exchange-traded funds, which are similar to mutual funds but traded like stocks. A single exchange traded fund will have dozens of bonds, stocks; these bundles of investments, through their diversification, will return a solid percentage of profit every year. These professionally-run bundles are efficient because they provide a consistent return on investment. The average exchange-traded fund charges annual fees equal to roughly 1.3 percent of the fund’s assets.
Avoid Options, Forward Contracts and Futures: The most sound investment strategy for a small business owner will not incorporate zero-sum games. Individual investors who dabble in options and other similar holdings are betting against experienced professionals—for every dollar earned, someone else loses. 

Types of Business Investments:
The term “investment” must be held separate when comparing or evaluating individual investors and owners of small businesses. The difference lies in the expected goal—an individual investor will secure an investment security to earn short or long-term profits, whereas a small business owner will invest in a maneuver or initiative to publicize his or her business. A small business investment is an organizational tool; by tinkering with the business model, a small business owner can reach their consumer base in a more effective manner. Investing in this sense refers to advertising endeavors and other investment strategies that bolster the owner’s product or service.